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金沙遗址:继起的新中心

作者:admin 2020-10-03 我要评论

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金沙遗址发现近20年来,人们一直将其视为十二桥文化的一个中心聚落,同时也是三星堆衰落之后,在成都平原兴起的一个具有都邑性质的中心聚落。不过,随着研究的深入,越来越多的学者更倾向于将金沙遗址视为一个宗教中心,而非都邑中心。9月6日开启的三星堆遗址新的考古发掘,或将促进人们对三星堆与金沙关系的深入理解。

 

金沙遗址祭祀区位于金沙村一个叫乌木沱的地方,这里曾是摸底河古河道的大拐弯处,由于水流回旋,沉降淤积了很多木头

 

摄影/蔡小川

建筑工地上的新发现

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金沙遗址中一棵3000年前的榕树树根,可以推测,当时这一地区树木参天、植被茂盛

 

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在金沙遗址祭祀区的第三阶段(2600年前~春秋时期),祭品主要为野猪獠牙、鹿角、少量象牙,也包括美石,这一时期国力走向衰落,祭祀活动也走向衰落

 

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金沙遗址分布范围示意图

 

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金沙遗址博物馆馆长朱章义(左)和成都市文广新局非遗处处长张擎,两人当年都是金沙遗址的主要发掘者

 

三星堆与金沙,两个遗址有什么关系?

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金沙遗址祭祀区全景。其中供参观者行走的布道,正是当年施工建设中挖掘机挖出的水沟,祭祀区绝大部分精美的文物,均清理自机挖土中

 

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金沙遗址出土的小青铜立人,基本造型和神态与三星堆2号坑大铜立人像相同,只是后者头戴双眼形的帽子,发饰为戴发笄的笄发,腰上没有插权杖

 

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2019NIANYILAI,ZAISANXINGDUIYUANLAIYI、ERHAOQIWUKENGFUJINFAXIANDE6GEQIWUKENG,YIJIJIJIANGKAISHIDEXINDEFAJUE,YOUJIERZHEGUANXIDECHANSHIDAILAILEXINDEYIWENYUKENENG。JIANGZHANGHUABIANTANDAOLEZIJIDEYIWEN:“SANXINGDUIYIHAOKENGCHUTUDETAOQI,JIUYOUSHIERQIAOWENHUADEDONGXI。ERQIEZUIJINYAOWADE6GEKENG,BINEIGEYIHAOKENGHAIWAN,TANGOULIMIANCHUTUDETAOQIJIUSHISHIERQIAOWENHUADETAOQI,HAIYOUJIANDIBEI。SUOYIWOMENHAIBUQINGCHU,DAOLESHIERQIAOWENHUAZAOQIDESHIHOU,SANXINGDUIDOUYIJIUJINGSHUAILUOMEIYOU?ZHEIXIEKENGDEZHURENDAODISHISHEI?YOUMEIYOUKENENG,TAMENBENSHENJIUSHISHIERQIAOWENHUADEZHUREN?YAOBUNIZENMELIJIE,DAOLESHIERQIAOWENHUASHIQI,TAMENHAISHIYAOYONGZHEITAODONGXI?SHIJISHANGZHEIGE‘JISIKENG’,JIUXIANGDANGYUCONGSANXINGDUIWENHUADAOSHIERQIAOWENHUADEGUODUQI。”

金沙遗址复原后的普通建筑,与成都平原当时建筑相仿,均为木骨泥墙,整个遗址区目前共发现三座大型建筑和上百座普通建筑基址

 

KAOGUGONGZUOZHECENGZAISHANXINANBUHANSHUILIUYUDECHENGYANGTONGQIJIQUN、CHENGGUXIANBAOSHANYIZHI、ZIYANGXIANBAIMASHIYIZHIDENGDI,FAXIANLEYUSANXINGDUIWENHUAMOQIYICUNHESHIERQIAOWENHUAYICUNXIANGTONGDETONGQIHETAOQI。ZAIQINLINGBEIPODEBAOJIZHUYUANGOUHENANPOBAOFENGAIDAONANDUANDEFENGXIANGUYIZHI,RENMENYEFAXIANLESUMIANWUWENSHIDETAOJIANDIGUAN、JIANDIZHANDENGDIANXINGDESHIERQIAOWENHUATAOQI,LINGWAIZAIBAOJIZHUYUANGOUHERUJIAZHUANGGONGYUGUOMUZANGYEFAXIANLEXUDUODIANXINGDESHIERQIAOWENHUATONGQIHETAOQI。

RUHEKANDAIZHEIZHONGWENHUADELIUBU?ZAISUNHUAMIAOSHUDESANXINGDUIWANGGUODESHUAIWANGTUJINGZHONG,SANXINGDUIRENDEYIZHICHUANYUEDABASHANXIJINRUHANSHUILIUYU,JINERJINRUGUANZHONG;LIUZAICHENGDOUPINGYUANDEYIZHIQIANWANGCHENGDOUSHIQUYIDAI,CUCHENGLEJINSHAYIZHIZHONGXINDEXINGSHENG。

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1985NIAN12YUE,SHIERQIAOYIZHIBEIFAXIANSHI,CANYUWAJUEDEJIANGZHANGHUAHAISHISICHUANDAXUELISHIXIKAOGUXUEZHUANYEDEXUESHENG。1986NIAN,TAZAIDAXUEBIYEHOUBIANJIARUCHENGDOUSHIBOWUGUANKAOGUDUI,ZAISHIERQIAOYIZHIYIZHIFAJUEDAO1989NIAN。“GANGFAXIANSHIERQIAODESHIHOU,DUITADENIANDAIRENSHIBUQING,ZAIJIASHANGSHIERQIAOWENHUAZHONGBENSHENBIANYOUYIXIESANXINGDUIWENHUASHIQIDETAOQI,DANGSHIRENWEIJIUSHISANXINGDUISHIQIDEWENHUA。1995NIANWOGANGHAOWALEXINYICUN,WALEBAODUN,HOULAIHENKUAIXIELEYIPIANWENZHANG《CHENGDOUPINGYUANXIANQINWENHUACHULUN》,SHITUTONGGUOKAOGUXUEJIANLICHENGDOUPINGYUANWENHUABIANNIANXULIE,BASHIERQIAOWENHUAFENLECHULAI。”JIANGZHANGHUAHUIYI。

2001NIANYIHOU,JIANGZHANGHUAKAISHIGUANZHUSANXIADIQUDEKAOGUYANJIU,ZAIXUNZHAOBAWENHUADEYUANTOUSHI,TAYOULEYIWAIDEFAXIAN,TADEJIESHISHI:SANXINGDUIWENHUAXIANGSHIERQIAOWENHUAZHUANBIANDEGENBENYUANYINSHIEXIDIQUBARENDEXIQIAN,YIBUFENBARENQIANRUCHENGDOUPINGYUANYUSANXINGDUIRENQUNRONGHE。“ZHONGYUANDIQUDEERLITOUWENHUA,TONGGUOZHANGJIANGZHONGYOUJINRUSANXINGDUI,YINGXIANGDAOSANXINGDUIWENHUA。DANERLITOUWENHUABINGMEIYOUZAIZHANGJIANGZHONGYOUTINGLIUHENJIU,HENKUAISHANGWENHUAJIUXINGQI,ZAIZHANGJIANGZHONGYOUQIANGSHIXIANGNANKUOZHANG,XINGCHENGPANLONGCHENGDENGYIZHI。DANSHISHANGRENQUEDUIEXIZHEIKUAIDIQUMEIYOUXINGQU,SUOYIEXIDIQUJIUBAOLIULEERLITOUWENHUADEDONGXI。SANXINGDUIYOUZAICHENGDOUPINGYUAN,SUOYIJILEEXIDIQUFAZHANZIJITUZHUWENHUADEJIHUI。EXIDIQUDEXIANGLUSHIWENHUAHENKUAIFAZHANCHUJIANDIBEI、HUANDIGUANZHEITAODONGXI,GENWOMENHOULAIJINSHASHIERQIAOWENHUADEDONGXIXIANGSI。DANSHIZHEIGEWENHUAHENQIGUAI,YINXUYIQIHOUZAIEXIDIQUTURANXIAOSHIDEWUYINGWUZONG;TAZAIEXIDIQUXIAOSHIDETONGSHI,QUEYOUZAISICHUANPENDIBAOKUOSHANNANDIQUDALIANGCHUXIAN,ERZHEIGESHIHOUZHENGSHISANXINGDUIWENHUAMEILUO、SHIERQIAOWENHUAXINGQIDESHIHOU。”

迄今为止,金沙遗址共发现3000多座墓葬,其朝向均为西北-东南向

 

是都邑,还是祭祀中心?

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ZHUZHANGYIGAOSUWO,ZAIHOULAISUOZUODETIANWENXUEKAOGUZHONG,DAJIAJINGYADIFAXIAN,JINSHAYIZHIJISIQUJISITAIZHANGBIANDEFANGXIANG,ZHENGHAOSHIDONGZHINEITIANRICHUDEFANGXIANG。ZHEIYESHIYIZHIZHONGXUDUOMUZANG、CHENGDOUSHIBUSHAOLAOJIEDEFANGXIANG。

KEYIXIANGXIANGDESHI,SANXINGDUIRENQIANXIDAOMODIHEPANGDEJINSHACUNSHI,NEILIBINGFEIBUMAOZHIDI,ERSHIYIGEYIJINGYOUZHEYOUJIUCHUANTONGDEJISIQU。

JINGUANCONGXUDUOQIWULAIKAN,JINSHARENHESANXINGDUIRENRENGGONGXIANGZHEYITAOSHENQUANJIAZHIFUHAOHEXINYANGTIXI,BUGUOBIANHUASIHUZAIQIAORANFASHENGZHE。CHULESHENGHUOTAOQIDEGENBENBIANHUAWAI,JINSHAYIZHIZHONGYIJINGKANBUDAONEIZHONGWAIXINGHONGDAZHUANGYANDEQINGTONGQIWU。ZAIJIANGZHANGHUAKANLAI,ZHEIZHONGBIANHUADEGENGDAKENENGZAIYU,ZAIZHEIYISHIQIDEJINSHA,SHISUZHENGZHIQUANLIZAIBUDUANZENGQIANG,ERZONGJIAOYINGXIANGHENKENENGZAIJIANGDI。“SANXINGDUIDEZHEITAOLIYIYONGQIWEISHENMEYAOZUOZHEIMEDA?KENENGYINWEIZHEIYISHIQISHEHUICANYUMIANGUANG,JIUXIANGWOMENJINTIANJIQIANRENKAIHUI,DUOYUANDOUNENGKANDAO,YOUZHENHANLI;JINSHASHIHOUZUODEXIAO,KENENGSHEHUICANYUMIANMEIYOUNEIMEGUANG,ZHUYAOSHIYIXIESHENZHIRENYUANCANYUJISI,YEBUXUYAOZUONEIMEJUYOUZHENHANLIDEDONGXI。”

ZAICHENGDOUSHIKAOGUYANJIUYUANDEBANGONGSHI,JINSHAYIZHIZHUYAOFAJUEZHEJIBAOGAOZHENGLIZHE、YANJIUYUANZHOUZHIQINGGAOSUWOYOUGUANJINSHAYIZHIDEYIDADUISHUJU:ZAI5PINGFANGGONGLIDEYIZHIFANWEINEI,DAOMUQIANWEIZHI,QIANGJIUXINGFAJUEYOU100DUOCHU。ZAIJISIQUBAOHUFANWEIWAI,96%DEQUYUJINXINGLEFAJUE,FAJUEZONGMIANJIDADAO25WANPINGFANGMI。ZAIJISIQUWAI,HAIZAIMODIHEBEIANFAXIANLEBEICHENGWEI“GONGDIAN”DESANZUODAXINGJIANZHUJIZHI,3000DUOZUOMUZANG,8000DUOGEHUIKENG,200DUOZUOTAOYAO,YIJIKEYIQUERENDEYIBANJIANZHU100DUOZUO。

ZAIJINSHAYIZHIFENBUTUSHANG,RENMENNENGQINGXIDIKANDAOMODIHENANANDEDAPIANJISIQU,BEIANHUANGZHONGCUNDUOZUODAXINGJIANZHUJIZHISUOZAIDE“GONGDIANQU”,YIJI“GONGDIANQU”FUJINDEDAPIANMUDI,HAIYOUQIJIANLIANPIANDESHENGHUOYIJI。FENGONGMINGQUEDEGONGNENGQUKUAISIHUZAIGAOSURENMEN,CENGJINGDEJINSHAWANGGUO,DUOMESHENGJIYISHI。

ZHISHI,ZHOUZHIQINGDUIJINSHAYIZHIMUQIANDEYANJIUXIANZHUANGBINGBUMANYI:“2001NIANZHIHOU,WOMENZUIZHONGYAODERENSHIDOULAIZIWAJUEJIWACHULAIDEYIPIJINGMEIWENWU。NEIPIDONGXICHULAIYIHOU,WOMENDEZHUANJIAXUEZHEJIUDUIYIZHIDEXINGZHIDINGXINGLE,ZHEIYESHI20NIANLAIWOMENDUIJINSHAYIZHIDERENSHIMEIYOUJINYIBUTUPODEYUANYIN。”

SHISHISHANG,BAOKUOJIANGZHANGHUAZAINEIDEYIXIEXUEZHE,YIDUIJINSHAYIZHIDE“DOUYISHUO”YOUSUOHUAIYI。“WOMENRUGUOSHUOJINSHASHIDOUYI,NEIMEYOUJIGEBUHELIDEDIFANG:YISHIJINSHAYIZHISUOZAIDIWEIYUSHIERQIAOWENHUAJULUOMIJIFENBUQU(DOUZAIPIXIAN、XINJIANGNEIYIDAI)DEDONGNANBIANYUAN,ERBUSHIZHONGXINWEIZHI,ZHEISIHUBULIYUZHENGZHIKONGZHI;ERSHIJINSHAYIZHIYIFAXIAN3000YUZUOMUZANG,QUEMEIYOUFAXIANYIZUOGAODENGJIMUZANG,ZHEIXIEMUZANGMEIYOUMINGXIANDEDIWEIXUANSHUTEXING,ERQIEDUOWEIYUJUZHUQUFUJIN,SHENZHIYUJUZHUQUZHONGDIE;SANSHIJINSHAYIZHIFAXIANDEDAXINGJIANZHUQUNGENGXIANGSHIZONGMIAOXINGZHIDEJIANZHU。ZHEIGEJULUODEXINGSHENGYUTADEJISITIXIYOUGUAN,ZHEITAOZONGJIAOYISHIHUODONGXINGSHENGDESHIHOU,JULUOJIUHENXINGSHENG;ZONGJIAOHUODONGSHUAILUODESHIHOU,JULUOJIUHENSHUAILUO。ZHEISHUOMINGYIGEWENTI,ZHEIGEJULUOCUNZAIDEJICHUJIUSHIZONGJIAOJISI。SUOYI,WOJIURENWEITAHENKENENGSHIZONGJIAOZHONGXIN。HUIBUHUIZAIZHEIGESHIQI,TADEZONGJIAOZHONGXINHESHISUQUANLIZHONGXINBUZAIYIKUAI?BUXIANGSANXINGDUISHIGAODUZHONGHEZAIYIQI。”JIANGZHANGHUASHUO。

CONGSANXINGDUIDAOJINSHA,KAOLVDAONONGHOUDECHUANCHENGSECAI,JINSHAYIZHIZUOWEIYIGEZHENGZHIZHONGXIN,QUESHIZHONGMEIYOUFAXIANCHENGQIANG,ZHEIYERANGRENNANYILIJIE。JIUSUANSHI“DADOUWUCHENG”,BEIBIANHUANGZHONGCUNNEIXIEBEISHIWEI“GONGDIAN”DEDAXINGJIANZHU,GESANWUSHIMIJIUSHIDAPIPINGMINMUZANG,SIHUYEBUTAIHELI。

YOUYISIDESHI,ZAIJINSHAYIZHIJISIZUIWEIFANSHENGDESHIQI,JULIYIZHIDONGBEI8GONGLIDEDIFANG,HAIYOUYIZUOFAXIANYUSHANGSHIJI50NIANDAIDEYANGZISHANTUTAIYIZHI。ZAI《JINSHAYIZHIJISIQUCHUTUWENWUJINGCUI》YISHUDEQIANYANZHONG,ZHOUZHIQINGXIEDAO:“JINSHAYIZHIJISIQUWEIJIANDUIXIANGONGXIANWANGCHONGBAI,SHUOMINGJISIQUKENENGSHIYICHUZHUANMENJISIZIRANSHENZHIDESHENGDI,JISIDUIXIANGZHUYAOSHITAIYANG、SHANCHUAN、HELIU、TUDIDENG;ZHEIYUYANGZISHANTUTAIHESANXINGDUIJISIKENGWEIDAIBIAODEJISIFANGSHIHEDUIXIANGYOUZHEMINGXIANDECHAYI,ZHEIZHONGCHAYIXINGZHENGSHISHANGZHOUSHIQIGUSHURENJISICHUANTONGFUZAERDUOYUANDEFANYING。”

KAOGUYANJIU,GENGXIANGSHIYIGEGEZAIXIANYOURENSHIJICHUSHANGXINGCHENGDEJIASHUO。“RUGUOJIANGLAIHAINENGFAXIANYIXIESHIERQIAOWENHUADEZHENGZHIZHONGXIN,HUOZHEQITADIFANGDEYIXIEDAXINGWANGMU,WODEJIASHUOKENENGJIUBIJIAOWANSHANLE。WOXIANZAIYOUGETUICE,RUGUOHAIYOULINGWAIYIGEZHENGZHIZHONGXIN,HENYOUKENENGJIUZAIPIXIAN、XINDOUZHEIYIDAI,YINWEIZHEIYIDAISHIERQIAOWENHUAYIZHITEBIEMIJI。”JIANGZHANGHUASHUO。

BANSUISANXINGDUIYIZHIXINDEKAOGUFAJUE,CONGSANXINGDUIDAOJINSHA,NEIXIEGUANYUGUSHUWENMINGDEMITUANHUOXUNENGDEDAOGENGDUOJIESHI,DAIJIRENMENGENGDUOXINDERENSHI。


1.BENZHANZUNXUNXINGYEGUIFAN,RENHEZHUANZAIDEGAOJIANDOUHUIMINGQUEBIAOZHUZUOZHEHELAIYUAN;2.BENZHANDEYUANCHUANGWENZHANG,QINGZHUANZAISHIWUBIZHUMINGWENZHANGZUOZHEHELAIYUAN,BUZUNZHONGYUANCHUANGDEXINGWEIWOMENJIANGZHUIJIUZEREN;3.ZUOZHETOUGAOKENENGHUIJINGWOMENBIANJIXIUGAIHUOBUCHONG。

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